Volume 3, Issue 4, December 2019, Page: 64-79
Pharmacological and Clinical Efficacy of American Ginseng (Panax Quinquefolius): A Mini Review
Vandenhouten Eric E., International Education College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, PRC; Ginseng Board of Wisconsin Medical Research Committee, Marathon, USA
Li Yan, College of Pharmacy, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, PRC
Ying Wang, International Education College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, PRC
Received: Oct. 11, 2019;       Accepted: Nov. 11, 2019;       Published: Dec. 2, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijcm.20190304.13      View  263      Downloads  64
Abstract
American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius, AG) is a standout amongst the most perceived herbal botanicals in Oriental Medicine and the alternative healthcare market. In spite of the fact that AG is not as broadly studied as Panax Ginseng, none the less, AG is one of the best-selling herbs in the world market, and has gathered expanding attention from researchers as of late. AG is grown in the United States of America, Canada, and The People's Republic of China, on subject of AG industry and quality standards Wisconsin Ginseng is considered to be the gold standard for the highest quality grown worldwide. AG has been farmed in Wisconsin, U.S., for more than 100 years, dating back to the 1800’s which birthed the artificially propagated industry. Today, Wisconsin Ginseng farmers account for 95 percent of the total cultivated AG production of the United States which continues to attract the studies of researcher professionals to the environmentally clean and regulated grown Wisconsin source of origin. Ongoing studies have demonstrated that through the numerous unregulated cultivated procedures that AG is grown, fungal molds, pesticides, and various metals and residues have contaminated the crops. Scientific investigations of AG in the past decade have increased drastically due to the increasing demand of herbal derived biomedicines from natural botanical plant sources that have demonstrated significant potential in clinical efficacy of important diseases. AG Past studies demonstrated have shown ginseng saponins called ginsenosides are the major active constituents in AG. The investigations of AG were relatively limited in the previous decade, but some encouraging advances have been accomplished in understanding the chemistry, pharmacology and structure-function relationship of AG and its clinical efficacy. In this manner, we review pharmacological effects of the ginsenosides, also the clinical efficacy on the cardiovascular system, immune system, and nervous system as well as metabolism and anti-cancer effects. Concentrating on the clinical evidence has indicated particular effectiveness in specific diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, arterial stiffness, neurocognitive disorders, and cancer fatigue as a recommended adjunct treatment along with supplementing conventional therapy.
Keywords
American Ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, Ginsenosides, Pharmacological Efficacy, Clinical Efficacy
To cite this article
Vandenhouten Eric E., Li Yan, Ying Wang, Pharmacological and Clinical Efficacy of American Ginseng (Panax Quinquefolius): A Mini Review, International Journal of Chinese Medicine. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2019, pp. 64-79. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcm.20190304.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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